SISTEM MONITORING DAN PENGONTROLAN TEMPERATUR PADA INKUBATOR PENETAS TELUR BERBASIS PID

Sofyan Shafiudin

Abstract


Abstrak


Budidaya penetasan telur unggas ayam sangat perlu diperhatikan dari segi kestabilan temperatur terutama menggunakan inkubator penetas buatan yang masih menerapkan kontrol On/Off di pasaran. Pengontrolan yang masih bersifat On/Off menghasilkan respon waktu relatif lama untuk mencapai keadaan steady state. Ditambah lagi cara kerja sistem yang membuat komponen mudah aus akibat lampu yang mengalami padam-hidup secara berskala. Disamping itu inkubator penetas telur yang ada dipasaran kurang cocok digunakan pada temperatur lingkungan yang gampang berubah-ubah karena dapat mempengaruhi kestabilan temperatur plant. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk merancang inkubator penetas telur otomatis yang dapat memperbaiki hasil respon temperatur plant inkubator agar tetap stabil sesuai nilai temperatur setpoint yang dikehendaki menggunakan kontroler PID. Metode pengontrolan PID dirancang dengan mengidentifikasi plant menggunakan ARX (Auto Regresive eXogenous) Matlab yang bersifat dinamis/nonlinier untuk mendapatkan model matematis serta nilai konstanta PID yang sesuai sistem. Perancangan hardware untuk inkubator penetas telur berbasis PID ini menggunakan Arduino Uno R3 sebagai pusat kontroler dengan memasukkan source PID dan PWM untuk menjaga kestabilan temperatur plant yang terintegrasi dengan akuator lampu pijar dan sensor. Dengan sensor DHT11 sebagai pembaca kondisi temperatur serta kelembaban plant. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan nilai konstanta PID setiap plant berbeda untuk plant 15 Watt paralel Kp = 3.9956, Ki = 0.361, Kd = 0, sedangkan plant 25 Watt paralel nilai Kp = 5.714, Ki = 0.351, Kd = 0. Dengan nilai konstanta PID tersebut mampu menghasilkan respon sistem yang stabil sesuai setpoint dengan nilai eror steady state berada di kisaran tidak lebih dari 5 %, yaitu 2.7%. Dengan persentase penetasan sebesar 70-80% berhasil menetas dilingkungan ber-AC (berubah-ubah).


Kata Kunci: Inkubator Penetas Telur, Pengontrolan Temperatur, Identifikasi ARX, Kontroler PID,


Arduino Uno R3  


Abstract


Poultry hatching cultivation is essential to be observed in terms of temperature stability by using artificial penetration incubator which applies On/Off control. The On/Off control produces relatively long response time to reach steady state conditions. Moreover, how the system works makes the component worn out because the lamp is on-off periodically. Besides, the cultivation in the market is less suitable to be used in an environment which has fluctuating temperature because it may influence plant’s temperature stability. The study aims to design automatic poultry hatching cultivation that can repair the temperature’s response of plant incubator to keep stable and in line with the intended set-point temperature value by using PID controller. The method used in PID controlling is designed to identify plant using ARX (Auto Regressive eXogenous) Matlab which is dynamic/non-linear to obtain mathematical model and PID constants value that is appropriate to system. The hardware design for PID-based egg incubator uses Arduino Uno R3, as the main controller that includes PID source, and PWM, to keep plant temperature stability, which is integrated with incandescent light actuators and sensors where DHTI 1 sensor as the reader as temperature condition and plant humidity. The result of the study showed that PID constants value of each plant is different. For parallel 15 Watt plant, Kp = 3.9956, Ki = 0.361, Kd = 0, while for parallel 25 Watt plant, the value of Kp = 5.714, Ki = 0.351, Kd = 0. The PID constants value were capable to produce stable system response which is based on set-point with steady state error’s value is around 5%, that is 2.7%. With hatching percentage of 70-80%, the hatching process is successful in air-conditioned environment (changeable).


Keywords: Egg Incubator, Temperature Control, ARX Identification, PID Controller, Arduino Uno R3


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