A STUDY OF WORD FORMATION PROCESS OF FOOD AND BEVERAGE PRODUCT NAMES IN INDONESIA

CITRA HARYATI

Abstract


A STUDY OF WORD FORMATION PROCESS OF FOOD AND BEVERAGE PRODUCT NAMES IN INDONESIA 


Citra Haryati


English Literature Study Program, Faculty of Languages and Arts, Surabaya State University


haryati.citra@ymail.com


 


Dian Rivia Himmawati, S.S., M.Hum. 


English Literature Study Program, Faculty of Languages and Arts, Surabaya State University


dianrivia@gmail.com


Abstrak


 


Nama produk menjadi salah satu bagian terpenting dalam dunia periklanan. Ini bertujuan untuk membedakan produk satu dengan yang lainnya. Para pembuat iklan seringkali membuat nama produk dengan menciptakankata-kata baru. Nama yang sesuai harus dibuat sebelum sebuah produk di luncurkan. Pembentukan kata diketahui sebagai ilmu linguistic yang mempelajari bagaimana sebuah kata di bentuk dan hubunganya dengan makna. Katamba (1994:120) menjelaskan bahwa makna dapat dikaitkan dengan pembentukan kata. Sementara pembentukan kata yang telah dihubungkan dengan makna dapat dihubungkan lagi dengan makna tambahan. Thesis ini mengkaji proses pembentukan kata dalam nama-nama produk makanan dan minuman di Indonesia. Dengan tujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan menjabarkan proses pembentukan kata dalam penamaan nama-nama produk makanan dan minuman. Disamping itu, karakteristik dari hubungan antar makna dan nama dengan produk yang berkaitan juga akan dikaji. Penulis menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif dan mengaitkan beberapa teori seperti Katamba (1994), Harley (2006) and Yule (2005) tentang proses pembentukan kata dan Richard dan Odgen (1923) dan Ullman (1972) tentang definisi makna secara referensial. Dalam proses analisis data penulis melakukan beberapa langkah: (1) mengklasifikasikan nama-nama berdasarkan proses pembentukanya seperti blending, compounding, wishy-washy, onomatopoeia, and coinage (2) menjabarkan proses pembentukan setiap nama yang telah diklasifikasikan, (3) menemukan makna dari setiap nama, dan (4) dan menghubungkan makna dengan produknya. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa nama-nama produk yang dibentuk berdasarkan proses blending memiliki beberapa karakteristik seperti, penggabungan tiga kata menjadi satu kata dan ada 10 proses penghapusan kata. Sedangkan, dalam compounding proses ada 6 tipe penggabungan kata yang ditemukan dalam nama-nama produk makanan dan minuman. Dalam prose swishy-washy ditemukan pengulangan kata secara identik dan tidak identik. Dalam proses onomatopoeic, symbol suara yang ditemukan merepresentasikan sebuah aksi dari benda-benda tertentu.  Sementara itu dalam definisi makna secara referensial terdapat 3 karakteristik hubungan, secara langsung berhubungan, tidak berhubungan secara langsung dan sama sekali tidak berhubungan.  Ada 7 tipe referen yang juga ditemukan.


 


Kata kunci: proses pembentukan kata, definisi makna secara referensial, dan nama produk makanan dan minuman


 


Abstract


 


Product names become one of the most important things in advertising. It aims to distinguish one product to another. Advertiser pretends to create a name for the product by forming a new word. Appropriate name must be given in the product before launched. Word formation is understood as the linguistic study of forming words and its relation with the meaning. Katamba (1994:120) defined that some meanings can be connected with some word-forms. A word-form which has connected with one meaning can be connected with additional meaning. This study focuses on word formation process on Food and Beverage Product Names in Indonesia. The purpose of the study is to identify and describe how the word formation process in naming food and beverage products. Besides, it is to find the characteristics of the relationship between the meanings of the name with the product it refers to. The writer applies descriptive qualitative method and uses some theories from Katamba (1994), Harley (2006) and Yule (2005) for theory of word formation process and Richard and Odgen (1923) and Ullman (1972) for theory of referential definition of meaning. In the data analysis, the writer does some process of analysis, they are: (1) classifying the names belong to blending, compounding, wishy-washy and onomatopoeia, (2) describing the formation of each name which has been classified, (3) finding the meaning of each name, and (4) relating the meaning with the product. The result shows that name regard to blending process there are some processes are found such as there are three words elaborated into single words and there are ten characteristics of deleting words. Meanwhile in compounding process there are six types of compound words found in food and beverage product names. In wishy-washy process, there are identical and un-identical reduplicative words. In onomatopoeic process the sound symbolisms are found represent an action of certain things and actions. While in referential definition of meaning there are three characteristics or referential relation, they are directly related, indirectly related and not related. There are also seven types of referent.


 


Key words: word formation process, referential definition of meaning, and food and beverage product names.



 



 


 



 


Introduction

 


Nowadays in Indonesia, there are many new products launched in every single day. Those are from all kinds of products such as food and beverage, automobile, technology, cigarettes, medicines, dairy products and many more. Each of the products has its own name which is known as product name. It becomes one of the most important things in advertising to help the consumers distinguish one product to others that have in common.


There are many kinds of names created in naming products. The advertisers usually uses particular name of things such as the name of main ingredients of the products, people and places. In naming a product they are not only use Indonesia but also other languages such as Japanese, Chinese, France and English-the most common used.


Today advertisers are very creative in creating new names. The most common way is combining two or more words that have already existed into single word. As Harley (2006:91) said that, an already existed word or words are usually used to make up new word by utilizing some innovative manipulation. It becomes one of the strategies by the advertisers to make the customers easily understand of the name. Another ways of creating new names are imitating the sounds of particular thing, using acronyms, deleting words partially then combining into one word and many more. Besides, there are also some product names created by using totally new word that have never used before.


Today, the forms of new names are easily found in food and beverage products. As it known, those two things become the main needs for every individual. This situation forces the advertisers to compete in making food and beverage products with very unique and different names.


According to Anandan (2009:113) an appropriate product name decides the product succession. Selecting suitable product names becomes one of the main important things before launching the products. There are many things that must be considered in deciding the name (Batey, 2008:148). It will give a beneficial if it is unique and different with other product names that have already existed. Besides, pronunciation becomes one of the main considerations in selecting the product name. It should be easy to pronounced and remebered in mind. Advertisers pretend to use phonetics strategy in supporting the appropriate product name. Therefore, meaning becomes another important thing to be considered. Every single name must have its own meaning. It is always connected with the things it refers to. In this case the meaning of a product name is always associated to the product. It aims to build such impression of the product. As Batey (ibid.,)  stated that people are very curious to find and create a meaning even if it is arbitrary. They are able to extract some meanings even in non-word names. There are two sources of meaning in naming products, those are the meaning that could be derived from semantics association and the meaning created by a sound symbolism. Defining the proper meaning of the product names depends on the customer’s perception and knowledge.


From these phenomena, product name is an interesting thing to be analyzed. There were various kinds of words created by the advertisers in naming those two kinds of products. In this case the theory of word formation process is needed to guide the Analysis. According to Bauer (1983:12) word formation is the formation of words. That there are many types of word formation processes that related to make a new words which probably appropriate in analyzing the formation of food and beverage products name, such as compounding; combining two bases, clipping; shortened by deleting parts of the base word, blending; amalgamation of parts of different words, acronym; combining the initial letters of compounds or phrases into pronounced properly and simple abbreviation. Besides the semantics theory, specifically the theory of referential definitions of meaning is also used to analyze the relationship between product names, its meaning and the product it refers to. The meaning will be analyzed after the formation of each name described. According to Katamba (1994:120) some meanings can be connected with some word-forms. A word-form which has connected with one meaning can be connected with additional meaning. Richard and Odgen (1923:11) drew basic triangle to describe the relationship between the components of meaning. Those components are symbol (name), thought or reference (sense) and referent (object).


Word formation process is not something new to be analyzed. In previous time, some researchers conduct researches about word formation in social media and literary works such as the study by Irma Nirmala (2012) that investigated the word formation process appeared on American riddle in Jokelopedia book. The other researcher Hana Puspa (2013), she worked on word formation of colloquial words in Facebook created by Indonesian teenagers. And the other is the study of Emma Prene (2011) that worked on word formation process in Harry Potter’s book.


Food and beverage product names in Indonesia are going to be analyzed through the word formation process and the relationship between the meaning of each name and the product.


 


RSEARCH QUESTION


 


Based on the phenomena in the background of the study above, it is intended to answer some of the research questions as follows;



  1. How is the word formation process of food and beverage products name in Indonesia?


2.   What are the characteristics of referential definition of meaning in naming food and beverage products Indonesia?


 


PURPOSE OF THE STUDY


 


The purpose of the creation of this research is to provide the answer of the research question described above, namely;


1.   To identify and describe kind of word formation processes of food and beverage products name in Indonesia.


2.   To recognize the characteristics of referential definition of meaning in naming food and beverage products in Indonesia.


 


METHOD


 


This study uses descriptive qualitative method which focuses on the quality of the data and the focus that influenced the data. The data is usually collected by observation, interviews, open-response questionnaire terms, verbal reports, diaries and discourse Analysis. Those are used to develop concepts and theories that help us to understand the social world (Heigham, 2009).


The subject of the study is the researcher itself. The researcher herself collected the data by observing directly. Then the object study is words taken from food and beverage product names in Indonesia. In this case only English product names are chosen..


The data used in this study are in form of word. Meanwhile, the source of the data is taken from names of food and beverage products in Indonesia.


Observation is chosen to collect the data in form of word on food and beverage product names in Indonesia. Wray, et al. (1998:186) explained that observation is the activity of recording, transcription and noting related to what is going to be observed. It is used to identify the first and the second research question.


According to Heigham (2009:169-173), there are three steps for observing the data. The first step is preparing for observation, the second is observing and the last is making field notes. 


Before observing the data, the writer ensures the field and the problems that would be analyzed in this study. In this case the problem is the word formation of food and beverage product names. In collecting data the researcher used television as the main tool. It is very effective media to observe the product name in order to know the description of the product as well. Besides, paper and pen were used to note the data that had been found. Internet access was also used to find the picture of each products, it can be seen in appendices.


After the preparation, the writer did the observation. She observed the advertisement that appears in certain minutes. She looked for the food and beverage names that used English words and considered as new words that have never existed before.


Every name that had been found would be transcript and listed on the table. The transcription of the names can be seen on the appendix. The table consists of number, product names consist of food and beverage, and columns of word formation process consist of several formation terms such as blending, compounding, wishy-washy words and onomatopoeia.


After collecting the data the researcher analyzed what he/she has found. Miles and Huberman (1994:12) break down the Analysis of qualitative data into three processes they are reducing data, displaying data and drawing and verifying conclusions. Reducing the data refers to the process of selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting, and transforming the field notes. The name of product have been collected were focused based on the process by using table. The data which is not dealt with word formation process is reduced. Besides, the data which have the same characteristics are deleted as well in order to have various kinds of data. After reducing the data, the second step is displaying the data that have been obtained. It is the process of organising and arranging the data. In order to answer the first research question the data had been classified into four categories are described one by one. The description contains of the formation process in each name. The next step is finding the meaning of each name in order to answer the second research question. In this case a dictionary is needed to obtain additional meaning of each word, because the words that are used in each name already existed in English. The last is relating the meaning of the name with its product by using basic triangle. The last step is making conclusion, in this case the conclusion is taken from the results of reducing and displaying data. Some theories that have been collected in the second chapter are related and proven in order to be applied to answer the two research question.


 


DISCUSSION


 


After analyzing the data, it can be found that  there are five types of word formation process found in food and beverage product names. They are blending, compounding, wishy-washy, onomatopoeia and coinage.


 


Blend names


 The formation process of blending names in food and beverage product is combining the bases that have been deleted partially. The name bischoc, chitato, crunchox, cefelicious, fresco javabica, richeese, chees’kress, soyjoy, hilo, fruitamin, Cheetos and fruppy are created by combining two bases. Menwhile, the name funtastea is created by combining three bases. According to Katamba (1994:128) blends are compound word that is created by combining partial of word forms belonging to two different bases. He only stated that combining two words or bases but in food and beverage product names combining three bases was found.


There are 10 characteristics of deleting the words that are found in blending name of food and beverage product. The first is back partial deletion that is deleted the back part of the second bases found in name cafelicious, and richeese. The second is deleted last letter of the first base and back partial deletion of the second base that found in name fresco. The third is front partial deletion of two bases that found in name richeese, javabica and fruitamin. The fourth is back partial deletion in the first and the secon bases that found in name bischoc and crunchox. The fifth is back partial deletion of the first base and front partial of the second base that found in name chitato and fruppy. The sixth is back partial deletion of the first base and changing one letter in the second base that found in name funtastea!. The seventh is front partial of the second base and changing letter in the third base that found in name funtastea!. The eighth is deleted last letter of the first base that found in name chees’kress. The ninth is deleted last letter of the first base and front partial deleted of the second base that found in name soyjoy. The tenth is back partial deletion of the first base and deleted the last letter of the second base that found in name hilo and Cheetos. They prove the statement of Harley (2006:102) stated that in creating blending name people generally feel quite free in manipulating words partially in order to form new words.


Another characteristic that found in blend names of food and beverage product is the use of symbol. There are two kinds of symbol found, they are exclamation mark (!) in name funtastea and aposthrophe (‘) in name chees’kress. The exclamation mark in name funtastea! is used to express compliment or show a shock of drinking tea. Meanwhile, the apostrophe symbol in name chees’kress is used to help the pronunciation properly, because there are three consonants in the middle of the name cheeskress.


According to Katamba (1994:83) said that symbols represent certain meaning in words. Visual symbols are used to represent entire meaningful units that could be morphemes or words without giving any influential to their pronunciation.


 


Compound name


Meanwhile the formation process of compound names in food and beverage product is combining two different bases that found in name fitbar, coffeemix, go-fruit, mytea, jesscool and teke-it. Besides there are six types of compound words found in food and beverage product names. The first is adjective noun compound found in name fitbar. The second is noun noun compound found in name go-fruit. The third is adjective verb compound found in name coffeemix. The fourth is noun adjective compound found in name jesscool. The fifth is determinant noun compound found in name mytea. The sixth is verb pronoun compound found in take-it. Those are created in forming a noun. As stated by Katamba (1994:49) compound is word formed by combining two base words that could be words in their own right in order to form a new lexical item.


Hypen symbol (-) is found in name go-fruit and take-it. It is used to separate the first and the second base of noun noun compound and verb pronoun compound. Katamba (1994) did not clearly define in what type of compound words it is used. But he gave many examples of compound words with hypen.


 


Wishy-washy name


Meanwhile, the formation process of wishy-washy names in food and beverage product is reduplicating word driven by phonological rhyme that found in names beng-beng, chacha, tictac and ting-ting. As Katamba (1994:54) explained that wishy-washy is a word formed by reduplicating words followed by rhyme motivated, it is also driven by phonological factors.


There are two characteristics that found in wishy-washy name. They are reduplicating the word identically as it found in name beng-beng, chacha and ting-ting. While, the other characteristic is un-identical reduplicative word as it found in name tictac. According to Katamba (1994:54) there are two categories of reduplicative compounds.  They are rhyme motivated compounds that copying the rhyme of the bases and ablaut motivated compounds that is copying the consonants and altering the vowel in.


 


Onomatopoeia names


The formation process of onomatopoeia names in food and beverage product is imitating sound of certain thing, such as the name tuc that is imitating the sound of breaking biscuit, kress that is imitating the sound of chewing crackers, oops that is imitating the sound of fault expression or slip of tongue, and jess that is imitating the sound of hissing soda. As Katamba (1994:28) onomatopoeia is the sounds symbolism that represents some aspect of the meaning of the word that they refer to.


 


Coinage name


      The formation process of coinage names in food and beverage product is creating totally new words that found in name nu and frutz. The name nu is originally misspelling of the word new in English. As same as nu, the name frutz originally misspelling of the word fruits in English. Both of the names have similar pronunciation to the original words. As explained by Yule (2005:53) Coinage is the word that has been invented originally. It could be that there is unknown technical origin for some invented terms.


 


Referential definition of meaning


      In food and beverage product names there are three kinds of relationship formed between the meaning of a name and the product it refers to. They are directly related, indirectly related and not related. The meaning of the name that have direct relation to the product found in name bischoc, chitato, cafelicious, fresco, funtastea!, javabica, richeese, cheetos, coffeemix, go-fruit, jess (jesscool), nu, and frutz. The meaning of those names directly related to the product they refer to because the name is created by using the definition of the product. As an example, in name Bischoc which is created by combining two words, biscuit and chocolate which defines the product clearly. The meaning can be easily known without finding other possible meaning.


In other hand the meaning indirectly relevant to the product because it does not clearly define the product. It needs some more information to relate the product. It is found in names chees’kress, crunchox, soyjoy, hilo, fruppy, fitbar, mytea, jesscool, take-it, chacha, tictac, tuc and kress. The meaning of the name chees’kress is considered as crunchy cheese. It is the name of cheese biscuit product. In this case the meaning crunchy does not define cheese but the biscuit, because cheese has soft shape.


The other characteristic of the relation between the name, the meaning and the product is not related. It is found in name beng-beng, ting-ting and oops. In name beng-beng, the meaning is not related the product because there is no relationship between very loud sound and chocolate wafer. It is as same as ting-ting, the meaning of the name ting-ting is high ringing sound which is not represent peanut candy as the product.


 As (Ogden and Richards, 1923:11) stated that between the thought or reference and the referent has a relation even if direct or indirectly. But in the relation between the food and beverage names, the meaning and the product it refers to there is also found no relationship. 


In relationship between the name, meaning and the product there are found 7 types of referent. The first is referring to definition as found in name bischoc, chitato and tuc. The meaning of each name refers to the definition of the product. The second is referring quality as found in names cafelicious, fresco, javabica and hilo. The meaning of each name refers to the quality of the product. The third is referring things as found in names crunchox, richeese, chees’kress, cheetos, fitbar, coffeemix, mytea, teke-it, beng-beng, chacha, ting-ting and kress. The meaning of each name refers to the ingredients of the product. The fourth is referring feeling as found in name funtastea!, soyjoy, fruppy, and jesscool. The meaning of each name refers the quality in consuming the product. The fifth is referring advantage as found in name go-fruit. The meaning of it name refers to the advantage of consuming the product. The sixth is referring movement as found in tictac. It refers to the movement of eating the product. The seventh is referring effect as found in name jess (jesscool). It refers to the effect of the product. As Ullman (1972: 57) stated that referent is the non-linguistic feature or the real world.


 


CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION


 


Conclusion


After analyzing the data, the writer can conclude several things. There are five strategies of word formation process are used in naming food and beverage products in Indonesia. They are blending, compounding, wishy-washy words, onomatopoeia and coinage. Besides, the names that found are very creative in based on the categories of word-formation. Symbol is used inside the name. Meanwhile, there are some elements of words are changed in order to make unique and ease remembered name. In selecting appropriate name the definition, characteristics and even the advantages of the product tend to use in forming of its name. It becomes the strategy to relate the meaning of the product name with the product it refers to. There are three kinds of ways in related the meaning of the name with the product. The first is directly stated the description or definition of the product in the name. It is stated by using the words of the product, take for example the name bischoc is taken from the main ingredients of the product, biscuit and chocolate. The second is indirectly stated the description or the definition of the product. The third characteristic of the relation between the name, the meaning and the product is not related. As an example, In name beng-beng, the meaning is not related the product because there is no relationship between very loud sound and chocolate wafer. In relationship between the name, meaning and the product there are found 7 types of referent. The first is referring to definition which refers to the definition of the product. The second is referring quality which refers to the quality of the product. The third is referring things which refer to the ingredients of the product. The fourth is referring feeling which refers the quality in consuming the product. The fifth is referring advantage which refers to the advantage of consuming the product. The sixth is referring movement which refers to the movement of eating the product. The seventh is referring effect which refers to the movement of eating the product.


 


Suggestion


Based on the result, the researcher realizes that this thesis is not perfect. Therefore, the writer will be glad if there are some readers who can use this thesis for further research. It is suggested that word formation and referential definition should be analyzed with knowledge in order to give full understanding. The writer also hopes that this thesis can be a reference for the next similar research. Hopefully, this thesis will be expanded the readers’s knowledge on linguistics, especially on Morphology and Semantics. For the company, in order to make the appropriate meaning definition of the product should be described in form of name. As Anandan (2009:113) said that an appropriate product name decides the product succession. It becomes the strategy of the advertiser to consider the relevant of the product category, connotations and image that are possible, overall appeal, ease of remembering the name, ease of recognition, ability to create a uniqueness, etc.


 


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