### STUDENTS’ DIFFICULTIES IN SOLVING RATIO PROBLEM

#### Abstract

The concept of ratio is fundamental in mathematics and in many other fields of knowledge. For example, the use of ratios concept in deciding price per item, fractions, percentages, probability, problems in motion, measurement, enlargement and reduction of shapes, figures, and many other topics. However, results of TIMSS in 1999, 2003, and 2011 showed about 70% of ratio problem cannot be solved by Indonesian students. The importance of ratio in daily life bring difficulties in solving ratio problem such big matter. This research is descriptive qualitative and is to describe types and reasons of students’ difficulties as well as the scaffolding given to overcome the difficulties of Indonesian students while solving ratio problem. The written test of ratio problem to 30 students of class 8K in SMPN 1 Sidoarjo is to determine 3 research subjects which has lower score than the first quartile of total score with different pattern of error. 3 subjects selected were interviewed to gain the information about students’ difficulties types and factors. Students’ difficulties were analyzed from students’ answer sheets in solving ratio problem based on Polya problem solving. Scaffolding was given to overcome the difficulties with provision of Anghileri scaffolding in level 2 and 3; reviewing, restructuring, explaining, and developing contextual thinking. According to the research result, 16.67% of students were having difficulties in reading only (RD), 33.33% students were having difficulties in mathematics only (MD), and 50% of students were having difficulties in mathematics and reading (MDRD). Reason of students’ difficulties in reading difficulties (RD) is error in understanding the information; in mathematics difficulties (MD) is inaccurate calculation; and in mathematics and reading difficulties (MDRD) are unable to recall the proportional relation and impulsive answer.

**Keywords: **Students’ difficulties, mathematics difficulties, ratio problem.

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