Analisis Kesalahan Siswa dalam Menyelesaikan Soal Pola Bilangan Model TIMMS

EKA SUSANTI BM, RINI SETIANINGSIH

Abstract


Abstrak

Berdasarkan data Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) pada tahun 2011, skor rata-rata prestasi matematika siswa kelas VIII SMP di Indonesia menduduki peringkat 36 dari 48 negara. Salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan agar siswa kelas VIII SMP/MTs di Indonesia dapat mengejar ketertinggalan tersebut adalah dengan menerapkan soal-soal yang berbasis TIMSS di sekolah. Pola bilangan merupakan salah satu materi yang digunakan dalam TIMSS untuk mengukur prestasi matematika siswa kelas VIII SMP/MTs. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 3 siswa kelas VIII SMP Lab School Unesa dengan kriteria tertentu. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan tes dan wawancara. Data berupa jenis-jenis kesalahan, faktor-faktor penyebab kesalahan, dan upaya untuk mengatasi kesalahan yang dilakukan siswa dalam menyelesaikan soal pola bilangan model TIMSS. Analisis kesalahan Newman digunakan untuk menganalisis jenis-jenis kesalahan siswa yang terdiri dari membaca, memahami, mentransformasi, keterampilan proses, dan penulisan jawaban akhir. Selain itu, salah satu upaya yang dilakukan untuk mengatasi kesalahan siswa menggunakan scaffolding berdasarkan Anghileri (dalam Nurohmah, 2014) yaitu level 2 (reviewing, restructuring, and explaining) dan level 3 (developing conceptual thinking). Hasil analisis jenis-jenis kesalahan yang dilakukan pada 3 subjek penelitian dalam menyelesaikan soal pola bilangan model TIMSS yaitu kesalahan membaca, kesalahan keterampilan proses, dan kesalahan memahami. Kesalahan membaca disebabkan kurang teliti, tergesa-gesa, dan tidak memahami makna soal. Kesalahan memahami disebabkan tidak memahami masalah. Kesalahan keterampilan proses disebabkan kurang teliti. Scaffolding yang diberikan pada kesalahan membaca yaitu rewiewing dengan meminta siswa membaca soal secara perlahan. Scaffolding yang diberikan pada kesalahan keterampilan proses yaitu rewiewing dengan memberikan contoh yang sejenis dan restructuring dengan melakukan tanya jawab. Scaffolding yang diberikan pada kesalahan memahami yaitu reviewing dengan cara meminta siswa menggunakan informasi yang didapat.

Kata Kunci: Analisis Kesalahan, Soal pola bilangan model TIMSS, Scaffolding, Newman.

Abstract

Based on Trends data in the International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) in 2011, the average score of eighth grade mathematics achievement of junior high school students in Indonesia was ranked 36th out of 48 countries. One of many ways that can be done so that the eighth grade students in Indonesia can catch up is to apply TIMSS-based questions at school. The number pattern is one of the materials used in TIMSS to measure the mathematics achievement of eighth grade junior high school students. This research is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The research subjects were 3 grade VIII students of junior high school in Unesa Lab School with certain criteria. Data collection techniques consist of test and interview. Data of this are in errors, factors that cause errors, and efforts to overcome the mistakes made by students in solving the problem of the TIMSS model number pattern. Newmans error analysis was used to analyze the types of student errors that consist of reading, comprehension, transformation, process skills, and encoding. In addition, one attempt was made to overcome the errors of students using scaffolding based on Anghileri (in Nurohmah, 2014), namely level 2 (reviewing, restructuring, and explaining) and level 3 (developing conceptual thinking). The results of the analysis of the errors types which were made by 3 research subjects in solving the problem of the TIMSS model number pattern, namely reading errors, process skill errors, and comprehension errors. The error of reading is caused by not being careful, hurrying, and not understanding the question meaning. Comprehension errors was caused by not understanding the problem. Error due to process skills is not thorough. Scaffolding given to reading errors is rewiewing by asking students to read the questions slowly. Scaffolding given to process skill errors was rewiewing by providing similar examples and restructuring by conducting question and answer. Scaffolding given to comprehension is reviewing by asking students to use the information obtained.

Keywords: Error analysis, TIMSS model number pattern question, Scaffolding, Newman.







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