BARGAINING POSITION PETANI DALAM MENGHADAPI TENGKULAK

ERNI MAHMUDAH

Abstract


Abstrak


Di Indonesia terdapat petani berlahan luas dan petani berlahan sempit. Kategorisasi ini mempengaruhi petani dalam menjalankan proses produksinya. Petani berlahan luas tidak mengalami masalah permodalan produksi, sedangkan petani berlahan sempit mengalami permasalahan modal. Akibatnya petani berlahan sempit melakukan hutang kepada tengkulak atau petani-pedagang demi kelangsungan produksinya. Studi ini berupaya menjawab masalah bagaimana bargaining position petani paska panen dalam menghadapi para tengkulak. Untuk menjawab permasalahan ini menggunakan metode kualitatif, data dikumpulkan dengan observasi dan indept interview dengan dianalisis secara kualitatif. Teori yang digunakan adalah teori moral ekonomi yang dikemukakan oleh James Scott, teori pertukaran oleh Blau mengungkap hubungan pertukaran antara petani dengan tengkulak, dan teori eksploitasi Karl Marx untuk melihat kekuatan modal yang dimiliki tengkulak atau petani-pedagang untuk mengeksploitasi petani yang melakukan hutang modal. Hasil penelitian menemukan bahwa bargaining position petani ada tiga macam, yaitu lemah, kuat, dan sejajar.


Kata Kunci: bargaining position, Petani, Tengkulak.


Abstract


 


In Indonesia there were extensive landowners and smallholders. This categorization affected farmers in carrying out the production process. Extensive landowners did not experience the problem of capital production, while smallholders experienced capital problems. As consequence, smallholders did debt to middlemen or farmer-traders in the continuity of production. This study sought to answer problems how bargaining position of farmer in dealing with the middleman after harvesting. To answer this problem using a qualitative method, data were collected through observation and interviews by analyzed qualitatively. The theory was used was the economic moral theory put forward by James Scott, the exchange theory by Blau revealed the exchange relationship between farmers and middleman, and Karl Marx's theory of exploitation to see the power of capital owned by middleman or farmer-traders to exploit farmers who commit capital debt. The results found that Farmer’s bargaining position there were three kinds, namely weak, strong, and parallel.


 


Keywords: Bargaining Position, Farmer, Middleman.


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