PENGEMBANGAN TWO-TIER MULTIPLE CHOICE DIAGNOSTIC TEST UNTUK MENGANALISIS KESULITAN BELAJAR SISWA KELAS X PADA MATERI SUHU DAN KALOR

NAILUL MAUNAH

Abstract


Abstrak


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan tes diagnostik materi suhu dan kalor yang layak digunakan dalam menganalisis kesulitan belajar siswa. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah Research and Development (R&D). Tes diagnostik ini divalidasi isi dan konstruksi oleh dua dosen fisika dan satu guru fisika SMAN 1 Babat, kemudian diujicobakan pada siswa kelas XI IPA SMAN 1 Babat untuk menghitung nilai reliabilitas soal dan uji coba terbatas pada 10 siswa kelas X SMAN 1 Babat yang tidak tuntas pada materi suhu dan kalor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tes diagnostik two-tier multiple choice pada materi suhu dan kalor yang dikembangkan telah layak digunakan sebagai instrumen untuk menganalisis kesulitan belajar siswa. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh persentase penilaian terhadap tes diagnostik oleh validator yakni validasi isi sebesar 89,37%  dan valiadasi konstruksi sebesar 90,17% serta nilai reliabilitas sebesar 0,4175, nilai ini lebih besar daripada harga tabel r product moment yakni 0,254, sehingga instrumen tes diagnostik yang dikembangkan reliabel. Analisis kesulitan belajar yang dialami siswa melalui pendekatan miskonsepsi dan miskonsepsi yang terjadi pada siswa pada konsep perpindahan/aliran energi panas yakni siswa belum memahami “apa” yang mengalir antara dua zat pada termodinamika dan penyebabnya, mekanisme perpindahan kalor (konduksi, konveksi dan radiasi) hanya menghafal pengertiannya saja, konsep suhu dan kalor yakni siswa menganggap suhu sebagai variabel ekstensif, yakni besarnya bergantung pada jumlah materi (massa), efek kalor terhadap pemuaian zat serta syarat terjadinya kesetimbangan termal, konsep kalor jenis, kapasitas kalor dan kalor laten yakni kurangnya keterampilan mengaitkan besaran kalor jenis, kapasitas kalor dan kalor laten dengan besaran lain dalam termodinamika dan konsep perubahan wujud yakni siswa menganggap suhu zat selalu naik/turun ketika diberi/melepas kalor sehingga implikasinya siswa menganggap suhu zat akan naik/turun saat perubahan fase.


 


Kata Kunci: Tes Diagnostik,  Two-tier multiple choice, Kesulitan Belajar, Suhu dan Kalor


 


Abstract


This study aims to develop a diagnostic test in temperature and heat chapter that reasonable for use in analyzing student learning difficulties. This type of research is the Research and Development (R&D). This diagnostic test is validated content and construction by two lecturers of physics and a physics teacher of SMAN 1 Babat, then tested in 11th IPA class of SMAN 1 Babat to calculate the value of reliability problems and trials limited to 10 students of 10th  class of SMAN 1 Babat that not completed on temperature and heat chapter. The results showed a two-tier diagnostic test multiple choice on temperature and heat chapter have developed is reasonable used as an instrument to analyze the students' learning difficulties. This is indicated by the percentage of the assessment of diagnostic tests by a validator which validity of the contents is 89,37 % and validity of the construction is 90,17 % and reliability value is 0,4175, this value is greater than the value table of the r product moment is 0,254, so the instrument of diagnostic test that developed is reliable. Analysis of learning difficulties that experienced by students through the approach of misconceptions and the misconceptions that occur in students on the concept of flow of heat energy that students do not understand "what" that flows between two substances in thermodynamics and its causes, mechanisms of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) only just memorize that sense, on the concept of temperature and heat that students regard the temperature as extensive variables that the amount depends on the amount of material (as massive), on the effect of heat on the expansion of the substance and terms of thermal equilibrium, the concept of specific heat, heat capacity and latent heat of the lack that skills linking magnitude of the specific heat, heat capacity and latent heat of the other quantities in thermodynamics and on the concept of the change that students always assume a temperature of a substance is  up or down when given or take off  the heat so the implications is students assume that temperature of substance is up or down at phase change.


 


Keywords: Diagnostic Test, Two-tier Multiple Choice, Learning Difficulties, Temperature and Heat


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